What Are Dog Fears and Phobias?

As dog owners, we all want to give our furry friends a happy and fulfilling life. However, sometimes our beloved pets may struggle with fears and phobias that can be distressing for both them and us. Understanding and addressing these fears is crucial for providing the best possible care for our four-legged friends. In this article, we will explore the different types of dog fears and phobias, their causes, symptoms, and most importantly, how to help your Shih Poo overcome them. So, let’s dive into the world of dog psychology and discover how to support our canines.

Understanding Dog Fears and Phobias

Understanding Dog Fears And Phobias
As fond as we are of our furry companions, dogs also experience their fair share of fears and phobias. These can manifest in a variety of ways, from anxious or aggressive behavior to trembling and whimpering. Understanding dog fears and phobias is crucial for any dog owner to care for their pet’s wellbeing. The causes of dog fears and phobias can vary greatly, and it’s important to recognize the signs to pinpoint the type of fear or phobia your pup may have. In this section, we’ll delve into these topics further, so you can become better equipped to deal with any fears or phobias your Shih Poo may experience. If you’re interested in learning more about how to help your Shih Poo with their fears and phobias, check out our Shih Poo phobia treatment article.

What Are Dog Fears and Phobias?

Dogs are just like humans and they can suffer from fears and phobias. Fears are a natural response to a real or perceived danger or threat, while phobias are an excessive and irrational fear of something that poses little to no actual danger. Just as people can develop phobias of different things and situations, dogs can also develop phobias.

It’s important to distinguish between fears and phobias because the latter requires professional intervention. While natural fears are normal, a phobia is an extreme and irrational fear response that can disrupt a dog’s daily life. Phobias can cause a range of problem behaviors such as aggression, destructiveness, and panic attacks.

The most common fears and phobias dogs may experience include:

  • Loud Noises – Dogs can develop a fear or phobia of loud noises such as thunder, fireworks, gunshots, and construction noises.
  • Social phobia – Dogs that have not been socialized to interact with people, other dogs, or new environments may develop social phobias.
  • Separation anxiety – Dogs may become anxious and fearful when left alone or when they sense their owner’s absence.
  • Travel Phobia – Dogs may become anxious and fearful when traveling by car, boat or plane.
  • Aggression – Dogs may develop a fear of unfamiliar people or other dogs, leading to increased aggressiveness.
  • Other phobias – Dogs can develop phobias of other things like specific objects, the vet’s office, grooming, or certain textures and sounds.

Understanding the different types of fears and phobias that dogs can experience is essential for dog owners. Knowing what specific triggers can cause a dog’s phobia or fear is also crucial in helping them overcome their anxieties. Early intervention and proper training can make a significant difference in improving a dog’s quality of life. For example, socialization is important in preventing social phobia, and anxiety training can help dogs with separation anxiety.

Causes of Dog Fears and Phobias

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of dog fears and phobias. These causes can be a combination of genetic, environmental, and learned behaviors. Here are some common causes of dog fears and phobias:

Possible Causes of Dog Fears and Phobias
Genetic: Some dog breeds may have a predisposition to certain fears and phobias, due to their genetic makeup.
Traumatic events: Dogs who have experienced traumatic events such as abuse, neglect, or a car accident may develop fears and phobias.
Lack of socialization: Dogs who were not properly socialized as puppies may have difficulty adjusting to new people, animals, and environments.
Separation anxiety: Dogs who experience anxiety when left alone may develop fears and phobias as a result.
Age: Older dogs may develop fears and phobias due to changes in their cognitive and physical abilities.
Learned behavior: Dogs may learn to associate certain things or situations with fear or anxiety, and develop phobias as a result.

It is important for dog owners to understand the causes of their pet’s fears and phobias in order to provide the most effective treatment. Early intervention is key in addressing these issues. To learn more about how to help your Shih Poo with their fears and phobias, read our article on early intervention for fear and phobias in Shih Poos.

Types of Dog Fears and Phobias

Dogs can develop fears and phobias about a wide range of things. Here are some of the most common types of dog fears and phobias that you should be aware of if you’re a dog owner:

Noise PhobiaSocial PhobiaSeparation Anxiety
Noise phobia is a fear of loud or sudden noises such as fireworks, thunderstorms, or gunshots. Dogs with noise phobias may become frantic during these events and may even become destructive.Social phobia is a fear of people or other dogs. Dogs with social phobias may become anxious or aggressive around other dogs or strangers.Separation anxiety is a fear of being alone. Dogs with separation anxiety may become anxious or destructive when left alone.
Travel PhobiaAggressionOthers
Travel phobia is a fear of traveling in a car, airplane, or any other form of transportation. Dogs with travel phobias may become anxious, nauseous, or even aggressive during travel.Aggression is not necessarily a fear, but it’s a common issue that many dog owners face. Dogs may become aggressive for various reasons such as fear, dominance, or territorial behavior.Other phobias that dogs may develop include fear of the dark, fear of certain objects, fear of certain surfaces, and fear of certain situations.

It’s important to recognize the signs of these fears and phobias so that you can help your dog overcome them. In the next section, we will discuss some methods for addressing your dog’s fears and phobias.

Symptoms of Dog Fears and Phobias

Dog fears and phobias can manifest in various ways. Some dogs may have only mild symptoms, while others may experience severe reactions. Here are some of the most common symptoms associated with dog fears and phobias:

Symptoms of Dog Fears and Phobias
Shaking or trembling: Dogs may shake or tremble when they’re afraid of something. This can be a mild or severe reaction depending on the situation.
Pacing: Some dogs may pace back and forth when they’re scared or anxious. This can be a sign that they’re trying to escape a situation.
Vocalization: Dogs may bark, whine, or howl when they’re afraid. This is their way of communicating their discomfort and trying to get attention.
Panting: Dogs may pant excessively when they’re scared or anxious. This can be a sign of stress and discomfort.
Sweating: Yes, dogs can sweat too! They sweat through their paw pads and may leave wet prints as they walk around.
Hiding: Dogs may try to hide in small spaces or under objects when they’re afraid. This behavior can be a sign that they’re seeking comfort and security.
Destructive behavior: Dogs may chew, scratch, or dig when they’re scared or anxious. This can be a sign of frustration and an attempt to escape a threatening situation.
Aggression: Dogs may become aggressive when they’re afraid. This can be a defensive reaction to a perceived threat.
Loss of appetite: Dogs may refuse to eat when they’re scared or anxious. This is a sign that their stress level is high and they may need help managing their fears.

It’s important to note that these symptoms may not always be caused by fears and phobias. They can also be a result of medical or behavioral issues. If you notice any of these symptoms in your dog, it’s always best to consult with your veterinarian to rule out any underlying health problems.

Types of Dog Fears and Phobias

Types Of Dog Fears And Phobias
As we discussed previously, several types of fears and phobias can affect our furry companions. These fears can hinder their daily life activities and make them feel uneasy. In this section of the article, we will delve deeper into the various kinds of dog fears and phobias, examining each in detail. Understanding their differences and how they manifest in our dogs is vital to finding the right help. So let’s take a closer look at some of the most common dog fears and phobias.

Noise Phobia

Dogs can often exhibit fear and anxiety due to loud noises such as thunder, fireworks, and even loud music. This type of phobia is known as noise phobia and can affect dogs of any age and breed.

Noise Phobia
– Dogs can experience noise phobia due to a traumatic event that was associated with a loud noise, such as fireworks or thunder.
– Some dogs are genetically predisposed to noise phobia and may exhibit signs of anxiety in response to loud noises.
– Symptoms of noise phobia can include shaking, panting, hiding, and destructive behavior as the dog tries to escape the noise.
– Treatments for noise phobia include desensitization therapy, where the dog is exposed to the sound at a low volume and gradually increasing it over time.
– Other treatments include providing a safe space for the dog to retreat to during times of loud noise and the use of calming aids such as pheromone diffusers or anti-anxiety medication.

If your dog shows signs of noise phobia, it’s important to provide them with the support and tools they need to manage their anxiety. With patience and love, you can help your furry friend feel more comfortable during times of loud noise.

Social Phobia

Social phobia, also known as social anxiety, is a common fear and phobia in dogs. It is characterized by a fear of social situations and interactions with other dogs or people. Dogs with social phobia tend to be shy, timid, and fearful when in crowded areas or when around strangers.

Here are some of the typical behaviors that dogs with social phobia may exhibit:

  • Excessive panting and shaking
  • Hiding behind their owner or objects
  • Avoiding eye contact with other dogs or people
  • Cowering or trembling when approached by other dogs or people
  • Showing signs of aggression, such as growling or snapping, when approached by other dogs or people

The causes of social phobia in dogs can vary. It can be due to a lack of proper socialization during their early stages of development. Dogs that have had negative experiences during their socialization period may develop fear and anxiety towards other dogs or people. It can also be due to a past traumatic experience, such as being attacked by another dog or being mistreated by a person.

If you suspect that your dog has social phobia, it is important to seek help from a professional. A veterinarian or animal behaviorist can help determine the cause of the phobia and recommend treatment options.

Some effective treatments for social phobia in dogs include:

  • Behavior modification therapy
  • Gradual exposure to social situations with positive reinforcement
  • Medication to help reduce anxiety levels
  • Training and desensitization techniques

It is important to be patient and understanding when helping your dog overcome social phobia. With the right care and treatment, it is possible for your furry companion to lead a happy and fulfilling life, free from fear and anxiety.

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is a common fear and phobia among dogs, where they become distressed and anxious when left alone. This fear can lead to destructive behaviors, such as excessive barking, howling, digging, and even urinating and defecating indoors.

Causes of Separation Anxiety

Several factors can contribute to separation anxiety in dogs, including:

Lack of TrainingDogs that were not trained to be left alone from a young age may struggle with the concept.
Change in EnvironmentA change in the dog’s environment, such as moving to a new home, can trigger separation anxiety.
Loss of CompanionIf a dog loses a companion, either a human or another pet, they may develop separation anxiety.
Previous TraumaDogs that have experienced trauma, such as abandonment or abuse, may develop separation anxiety.

Symptoms of Separation Anxiety

If your Shih Poo is experiencing separation anxiety, they may exhibit the following behaviors:

Excessive Barking or HowlingDogs may bark or howl excessively when left alone, often to get attention or express their anxiety.
Destroying Furniture or ObjectsDogs may chew on furniture, shoes, or other objects when left alone out of frustration or anxiety.
Urinating or Defecating IndoorsDogs may eliminate indoors when left alone due to anxiety or a lack of house training.
Attempts to EscapeDogs may attempt to escape their crate or the house when left alone, leading to injury or property damage.

How to Help Your Shih Poo with Separation Anxiety

It’s important to address your Shih Poo’s separation anxiety to prevent ongoing distress and destructive behaviors. The following strategies may help:

  • Training: Teach your dog to be alone gradually, starting with short periods and building up as they become more comfortable. Use positive reinforcement to reward calm behavior and discourage anxiety.
  • Exercise: Provide plenty of exercise and mental stimulation to help your dog relax and feel calm before being left alone.
  • Desensitization: Gradual exposure to triggers, such as picking up keys or putting on shoes, can help your dog become desensitized to the concept of you leaving.
  • Medication: If your dog’s separation anxiety is severe, medication may be recommended by a veterinarian to help manage their anxiety and stress.

By identifying the underlying causes of your Shih Poo’s separation anxiety, providing appropriate training and support, and seeking professional help if needed, you can help your furry friend feel more secure and happy when left alone.

Travel Phobia

Travel phobia is a common fear among dogs, and it can manifest in a variety of ways. Here are some of the signs that your dog may have a travel phobia:

  • Vomiting or diarrhea: Your dog might experience gastrointestinal distress when they’re in the car, on a plane or on a boat.
  • Panting or shaking: These are common signs of anxiety in dogs, and they often indicate that your pet is uncomfortable or scared.
  • Hyperactivity or lethargy: Your dog might become very active or very quiet when they’re in the car, which can be a sign that they’re experiencing high levels of stress.
  • Hiding or trying to escape: If your dog tries to hop out the window of the car or jump off the boat, then they are definitely experiencing some anxiety.

Travel phobia can be caused by a variety of factors. Some dogs may be scared of the sensation of movement, while others might be frightened by new or unfamiliar surroundings. Still, others may have had a negative experience in the past, such as getting car-sick or being in a car accident, and now they associate travel with danger and discomfort.

If your dog has travel phobia, there are some things you can do to help them feel more relaxed and comfortable on the road. Gradual exposure therapy, counterconditioning, and medications can all be effective treatments. Additionally, you can try:

  • Crate training: Many dogs feel more secure in a crate or carrier, especially if it’s filled with their favorite toys or blanket.
  • Familiar smells and sounds: Bringing along a favorite toy or blanket, or playing some soft music, can help to create a more reassuring environment for your dog.
  • Stopping frequently for breaks: Taking frequent stops can help to break up the journey and give your dog a chance to stretch their legs and go to the bathroom.

If your dog has travel phobia, it’s important to remain patient and understanding. With proper treatment and support, your furry friend can learn to associate travel with good experiences and gradually overcome their anxieties.


Aggression is a type of fear and phobia that manifests itself through a dog’s behaviors, such as growling, biting, and snapping. When a dog is aggressive, it can be dangerous to other animals and humans, making it a serious issue that requires immediate attention from a veterinarian or dog behaviorist.

There are several different types of aggression that dogs can display, each with its own set of causes and treatment options. Here are some of the most common types of aggression in dogs:

Type of AggressionCausesSymptomsTreatment
Food AggressionPossessiveness, fear of losing foodGrowling when near food bowl, snapping at hands while eating, guarding food bowlTraining to share food, feeding in a separate area, desensitization exercises
Territorial AggressionFear of invaders or strangers in their territory, possessiveness of spaceGrowling, snarling, biting, lunging when someone enters their space or homeTraining to allow visitors in the home, desensitization exercises, behavior modification techniques
Fear AggressionAnxiety or fear from a trigger or situationGrowling, snarling, biting, lunging when confronted with their fear trigger or situationBehavior modification, desensitization exercises, medication to reduce anxiety
Redirected AggressionOverstimulation from a situation or trigger causing the dog to lash out at the nearest targetBiting or attacking a person or animal who was not involved in the original situation or triggerPrevent overstimulation, removing the dog from the situation, behavior modification

No matter the type, aggression in dogs should always be taken seriously and addressed by a professional to keep both the dog and their surroundings safe. If your shih poo is exhibiting aggressive behaviors, consult with your veterinarian or dog behaviorist to determine the best course of treatment for your furry friend.


Other types of dog fears and phobias include a wide range of specific fears and anxieties that are less common than the ones previously mentioned. Below are some additional dog fears and phobias that you may encounter in your furry friend:

Fear/Phobia TypeDescription
Food fearMore commonly seen in dogs that have experienced food-related trauma such as choking or food poisoning. Dogs with food fears may refuse to eat certain foods or may only eat in certain locations.
Dental phobiaDogs with dental phobias may be fearful of having their teeth cleaned or examined by a veterinarian. This can be due to prior painful experiences or a general fear of restraint.
Veterinary phobiaDogs with a strong fear of veterinary appointments may refuse to enter the clinic or may become aggressive when handled by the veterinarian. This can be due to a bad experience in the past or a general anxiety about being in an unfamiliar environment.
Water phobiaDogs with water phobias may be afraid of swimming or even being bathed. This can be due to a traumatic experience such as nearly drowning or a negative association with water (e.g. only being bathed when they are sick).
No-touch phobiaDogs with no-touch phobias may be sensitive about being touched on certain areas of their bodies, such as their paws or tail. This can be due to prior pain or discomfort in those areas or an innate sensitivity to touch.

It’s important to note that every dog is unique, and what may be a fear or phobia for one dog may not be an issue for another. If you notice any unusual behavior or signs of anxiety in your dog, it’s important to consult with a veterinarian or a professional dog behaviorist to determine the best course of action for your individual pet.

How to Help Your Shih Poo With Their Fears and Phobias

As a dog owner, watching your Shih Poo suffer from fear and phobias can be heartbreaking. You want to do everything in your power to help your furry friend feel safe and secure. While it’s important to understand the different types of dog fears and phobias, it’s equally important to know how to help your Shih Poo overcome them. Don’t worry if you feel perplexed, as there are effective techniques and strategies that can help alleviate their fears and phobias. Let’s explore some proven methods that can make a real difference in your Shih Poo’s well-being.

Identify Triggers

Identifying the triggers that cause fear or phobia in your Shih Poo is the crucial first step towards helping them overcome their anxiety. Here are some steps you can take to identify the triggers:

  • Observe your dog’s behavior: Take note of when your Shih Poo begins to exhibit anxious or fearful behavior. Keep a journal or take notes of the specific situations, people or objects that trigger such behavior in your dog. This can help you identify patterns in their behavior and possible triggers.
  • Pay attention to body language: Dogs have a way of communicating through their body language. Look out for signs like panting, trembling, hiding, or aggression. These behaviors can provide clues to what triggers your dog’s fear.
  • Consider their past experiences: Your dog’s past experiences can also provide valuable insights into what may be causing their fears and phobias. For instance, if your dog was badly frightened by a loud noise like thunder or fireworks, it may trigger their fear in the future when exposed to similar noises.
  • Consult a professional: If you’re unable to determine what is causing your Shih Poo’s anxiety, consider consulting a professional dog trainer or behaviorist. They can help you identify your dog’s triggers and create a customized plan to help your dog overcome their fears.

Identifying your dog’s triggers may take time and patience but it is an important step towards helping them overcome their fears and phobias. By understanding the root cause of their anxiety, you can create a tailored plan that effectively addresses their fears and puts them at ease.

Gradual Exposure Therapy

Gradual exposure therapy is a behavioral technique used to help dogs overcome different fears and phobias. This technique involves gradually exposing your Shih Poo to the fear-inducing stimulus at a level that they can handle.

How does gradual exposure therapy work?

Basically, gradual exposure therapy works by desensitizing your dog to something that they’re afraid of. It involves exposing them to the fear-inducing stimulus in a gradual and systematic way until they can tolerate it without experiencing significant anxiety or fear.

The steps involved in gradual exposure therapy can be broken down into the following:

Step 1Identify the fear-inducing stimulus that your dog is afraid of.
Step 2Start with a low-level exposure to the stimulus. This could involve showing your dog a picture or a recording of the stimulus at a low volume, for example.
Step 3Gradually increase the level of exposure over time. This could involve increasing the volume of the recording, or bringing your dog closer to the stimulus.
Step 4Keep exposing your dog to the stimulus at each level until they’re comfortable with it. This means that they’re not showing signs of fear or anxiety.
Step 5Repeat the process with different levels of exposure until your dog is able to tolerate the fear-inducing stimulus without any fear or anxiety.

Why does gradual exposure therapy work?

Gradual exposure therapy works by gradually exposing your dog to the fear-inducing stimulus in a controlled and structured way. This helps them to build up their tolerance to the stimulus and reduces their fear and anxiety over time. By repeatedly exposing your dog to the stimulus, you’re helping them to learn that the stimulus is not something to be feared. This can be incredibly effective at helping dogs overcome their fears and phobias.


Gradual exposure therapy is a highly effective technique for helping dogs overcome their fears and phobias. By gradually exposing your Shih Poo to the fear-inducing stimulus in a structured and controlled manner, you can help them to learn that the stimulus isn’t something to be afraid of. This can help to improve their quality of life and reduce their overall stress levels.


Counterconditioning is one of the most effective ways to deal with a dog’s fears and phobias. It involves creating a positive association with something that previously caused fear or anxiety in the dog. This gradually helps to replace negative emotions with positive ones. Counterconditioning can be done at home, or with the help of a professional dog trainer or veterinary behaviorist.

To make it easier to understand how counterconditioning works, we can divide it into three stages, as shown in the table below:

Stage 1: DesensitizationThis involves exposing your dog to a low-level version of the trigger that causes their fear or anxiety. For example, if your dog is afraid of loud noises, you may start by playing a very quiet recording of a thunderstorm or fireworks. This exposure should be brief at first and gradually increased over time, building up your dog’s tolerance.
Stage 2: AssociationThis stage involves pairing the trigger with something positive, such as treats or praise, to create a positive association in your dog’s mind. For example, you may give your dog a treat every time they hear the sound of thunder, in order to create a positive reaction instead of fear.
Stage 3: GeneralizationThis final stage involves testing your dog’s new positive association in different situations, environments, and with different people. This helps your dog generalize their new positive association with the trigger, so they can react more calmly and confidently in a variety of situations.

It’s important to note that counterconditioning takes time and patience, and it’s not a quick fix. Each individual dog will progress at their own pace. Some dogs may take longer to overcome their fears and phobias than others, but with consistent and positive training, most dogs can improve over time.

In summary, counterconditioning is a powerful tool that can help alleviate your dog’s fears and phobias. The key is to systematically expose your dog to the trigger that causes their anxiety, while pairing it with something positive to create a new positive association. With time and patience, your dog can learn to overcome their fears and phobias, and live a happier and more confident life.


When it comes to treating a dog’s fears and phobias, medication can be a helpful tool in managing their symptoms. However, it’s important to note that medication should never be the only solution and should always be used in conjunction with other forms of therapy.

Types of Medication:

There are different types of medication that can be prescribed by a veterinarian to help manage a dog’s fears and phobias. These include:

Medication TypeDescription
AnxiolyticsThese are medications that help reduce anxiety and calm the dog. Common anxiolytics include benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Beta-BlockersThese medications help reduce the physical symptoms of anxiety, such as heart rate, trembling, and sweating. They’re often used in combination with other medications.
SedativesThese are medications that have a calming effect on the dog and can help them relax. They’re often used in situations where the dog needs to be sedated, such as during travel or veterinary visits.

Side Effects:

It’s important to note that all medication comes with potential side effects, and dogs may react differently to medication than humans do. Some common side effects of medication used to treat fears and phobias in dogs include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of coordination
  • Dry mouth
  • Increased appetite

Consulting with a Veterinarian:

It’s crucial to consult with a veterinarian when considering medication for a dog’s fears and phobias. The vet will be able to recommend the best course of treatment for the individual dog, taking into account any other health issues or medications the dog may be on. The dosage of the medication will also be carefully monitored and adjusted if necessary. With the right medication and guidance, a dog with fears and phobias can live a much calmer and happier life.


After understanding the different types of dog fears and phobias, it’s important to remember that every dog is unique and may require different methods of treatment to help them overcome their fears.

Overall, it’s crucial for dog owners to recognize the signs and symptoms of dog fears and phobias, and seek the help of a professional if needed. This can include a veterinarian, animal behaviorist, or certified dog trainer.

Remember that patience and understanding are key when helping your furry friend. It can be a long process, but with the right techniques and support, your dog can overcome their fears and live a happy, healthy life.

Don’t let your dog’s fears and phobias go untreated. Ignoring the problem can lead to a decrease in their overall quality of life, and may even result in dangerous situations for both your dog and the people around them.

With a combination of proper training, medication (if needed), and love and support from their owner, your dog can overcome their fears and live a happy, fulfilled life. So, take the steps necessary to help your pup overcome their fears and fears today!

Frequently Asked Questions

What are some signs that a dog may be experiencing fear or phobia?

Some signs include trembling, panting, hiding, excessive barking or aggression, and destruction of property.

Can dog fears and phobias be treated?

Yes, dog fears and phobias can be treated through various methods, including gradual exposure therapy, counterconditioning, and medication.

What is separation anxiety in dogs?

Separation anxiety in dogs is a fear or phobia that occurs when a dog is separated from its owner or left alone for extended periods of time.

What is noise phobia in dogs?

Noise phobia in dogs is a fear or phobia of loud noises, such as thunderstorms or fireworks.

Can dog fears and phobias be prevented?

While they can’t always be prevented, socialization and exposure to various stimuli at a young age can help reduce the risk of developing fears and phobias in dogs.

What is socialization in dogs?

Socialization in dogs is the process of introducing them to different people, animals, and environments to help them become more comfortable and confident in different situations.

Is it possible for a dog to outgrow a fear or phobia?

Yes, it is possible for a dog to outgrow a fear or phobia with the proper treatment and management.

Can medication be helpful in treating dog fears and phobias?

Yes, medication can be helpful in treating dog fears and phobias, but it should always be used in conjunction with other behavior modification techniques under the guidance of a veterinarian.

What is counterconditioning in dogs?

Counterconditioning in dogs is the process of changing a negative association with a specific stimulus into a positive one through the use of positive reinforcement and rewards.

Should I punish my dog for exhibiting fear or phobia behaviors?

No, punishing a dog for exhibiting fear or phobia behaviors can actually worsen the problem and create more anxiety. It’s important to use positive reinforcement and behavior modification techniques instead.


Matthew Farthing

Matthew Farthing

Сontributing author at DogCareHacks, Certified Dog Behavior Consultant.

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