Shih Poo dogs are adorable and loving companions, but they can also exhibit signs of aggression towards other dogs. If you own a Shih Poo with this type of behavior, you may be feeling overwhelmed and unsure of what to do. Fortunately, there are training techniques available that can help minimize your dog’s aggression and prevent future incidents. In this article, we’ll explore the reasons behind Shih Poo aggression, how to prevent it through early socialization and positive reinforcement, and how to deal with aggressive behavior when it occurs. By following these steps, you can create a safe and happy environment for both your Shih Poo and other dogs they encounter.
Understanding Shih Poo Aggression
As a Shih Poo dog owner, it’s important to understand and address any potential aggression that your furry friend may exhibit towards other dogs. While these dogs are typically friendly and social, certain characteristics and triggers may lead to aggressive behavior. By identifying these factors and implementing proper training techniques, you can effectively reduce the likelihood of your Shih Poo displaying signs of aggression. Let’s take a closer look at the various reasons for Shih Poo aggression and the steps you can take to prevent and manage it. For more information on Shih Poo aggression, check out /shih-poo-aggressive-dogs/.
Shih Poo Dog Breed Characteristics
The Shih Poo dog, a crossbreed between Shih Tzu and Poodle, is a small-sized dog, known for their affectionate and social nature. They are friendly with their human companions and make excellent family pets. However, Shih Poo dogs are also prone to displaying aggression towards other dogs. To understand how to train Shih Poo dogs to minimize aggression towards other dogs, we need to explore their characteristics.
Here are some Shih Poo dog breed characteristics:
- Shih Poo dogs are small-sized breeds weighing between 8-18 pounds, with an average height of 8-13 inches.
- They have a long and silky coat, which requires regular grooming and trimming to maintain their appearance.
- Shih Poo dogs are intelligent and can be trained quickly.
- They are friendly, affectionate, and social with their human family and enjoy spending time with them.
- Shih Poo dogs can be easily overwhelmed in unfamiliar situations, causing them to become anxious and aggressive towards other dogs.
- They can be stubborn at times and may display dominance towards other dogs.
- Shih Poo dogs are sensitive and may have separation anxiety if left alone for long periods of time.
Understanding these Shih Poo dog characteristics is important as it can help us better understand why they may display aggression towards other dogs. For instance, their sensitivity to unfamiliar situations and their dominant nature could be triggers for their aggressive behavior. We need to train Shih Poo dogs to manage these characteristics in a positive way and prevent any aggressive displays towards other dogs.
To learn more about preventing Shih Poo aggression, please visit our article on Shih Poo Aggression Tips.
Reasons for Aggressive Shih Poo Dogs
Shih Poo dogs are generally happy and energetic, but if they are not well socialized or trained, they can exhibit aggressive behavior towards other dogs. Understanding the reasons behind their aggression is crucial in preventing it.
Here are some of the common reasons for aggressive Shih Poo dogs:
- Lack of socialization: When a Shih Poo is not socialized properly, they may feel uneasy and anxious around other dogs, leading to aggressive behavior. It is essential to socialize a Shih Poo from a young age to prevent aggression towards other dogs. Socialization can help them feel comfortable and confident around other dogs, reducing the likelihood of aggressive behavior. For more information on socializing a Shih Poo, check out our article on Socializing a Shih Poo Dog to Prevent Aggression.
- Aggression Triggers: Shih Poo dogs may exhibit aggressive behavior towards other dogs due to specific triggers. Some common triggers include territorial behavior, fear, and anxiety. Understanding these triggers and avoiding situations that may cause them can help prevent aggression in Shih Poos. For more information on aggression triggers, check out our article on Shih Poo Dog Aggression Triggers.
- Dominant vs. Aggressive: Some Shih Poo dogs may exhibit dominant behavior, which can be mistaken for aggression. It is essential to understand the difference between dominance and aggression to prevent and manage any behavior problems. To learn about the difference between dominant and aggressive behavior in Shih Poos, read our article on Shih Poo Dogs: Dominant vs Aggressive.
- Fear Aggression and Anxiety: Some Shih Poo dogs may exhibit aggressive behavior due to fear and anxiety. Fear aggression can be exhibited due to a lack of exposure to positive experiences with other dogs or traumatic experiences. Anxiety can also lead to aggression in dogs. To learn about managing aggression in fearful dogs, check out our article on Fear Aggressive Shih Poo Dogs.
- Management: Shih Poos that exhibit aggressive behavior need proper management to prevent injuries to other dogs or humans. Understanding what triggers aggression and managing the environment around your dog can help prevent aggressive behavior. For more information on managing Shih Poo dog aggression, check out our article on Shih Poo Dog Aggression Management.
By understanding the reasons behind aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs, pet owners can take necessary steps to prevent and manage their dog’s behavior.
Preventing Shih Poo Aggression
As a Shih Poo owner, it’s important to understand the causes of aggression in your dog and to prevent it before it becomes a problem. No one wants their furry friend snapping at other dogs or biting strangers, but sometimes, it’s hard to know where to start. Fortunately, there are effective training techniques that can minimize aggression in Shih Poo dogs. In this section, we will explore the different methods for preventing aggression in your beloved pet. Let’s dive in and discover how to create a peaceful environment for your Shih Poo.
Early socialization is crucial in preventing aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs. Socialization means exposing dogs to different people, places, and experiences during their early life stage. This helps them develop confidence, positive associations, and the ability to adapt to new situations, reducing the chances of aggressive reactions towards other dogs.
To properly socialize your Shih Poo, create a socialization plan that includes gradually introducing them to different situations, people, and other dogs. Use a positive approach to reinforce positive experiences, such as treats, praise, and playtime.
Here’s a table with some examples of socialization experiences you can incorporate into your Shih Poo’s routine:
|Visiting the vet||To get used to handling, different smells, and noises in a vet clinic environment|
|Meeting new people||To become familiar with different types of people (men, women, children, etc.) and to prevent fear and aggression towards strangers|
|Encountering different dog breeds||To learn how to interact with dogs of different sizes, shapes, and temperaments, and to prevent aggression towards other dogs|
|Experiencing different sounds and smells||To get used to loud noises (thunder, fireworks, etc.) and different smells (perfumes, cleaners, etc.) that could cause fear or stress|
|Going on car rides||To become comfortable with car rides, which can be a major source of anxiety for dogs, and to go to different places|
Socialization is an ongoing process that should continue throughout your Shih Poo’s life. Make sure to expose them to new experiences and reinforce positive behavior with rewards. By starting early and continuing to socialize your Shih Poo regularly, you can minimize their aggressive behavior towards other dogs and ensure they live a happy, well-adjusted life.
Strong obedience training is an essential aspect of preventing aggression in Shih Poo dogs towards other dogs. Here are some obedience training techniques to incorporate into your Shih Poo’s routine:
- Teach Basic Commands: Teaching basic commands such as sit, stay, come, and leave it can help you establish yourself as the pack leader, improve your dog’s impulse control, and reduce aggressive behavior.
- Practice Leash Training: Leash training can help your Shih Poo learn to follow your lead and reduce leash aggression. When leash training, use a sturdy leash and collar, and avoid using retractable leashes as they can create tension and lead to unpredictable behavior.
- Implement “Nothing in Life is Free” Policy: Implementing a “nothing in life is free” policy means that your dog should earn everything, such as their meals, treats, and playtime, through obedience training. By doing this, your Shih Poo will learn that desirable things come from behaving correctly, which can positively influence their behavior.
- Reinforce Good Behavior: Positive reinforcement is a useful tool for obedience training. When your Shih Poo behaves well, reward them with treats, verbal praise, and affection, which helps reinforce positive behavior.
- Stay Consistent: Consistency is key when it comes to obedience training. Establish clear expectations and stick to them to avoid confusing your dog with mixed messages. Practice obedience training regularly to make it a habit.
By incorporating these obedience training techniques into your Shih Poo’s routine, you can establish a positive relationship with your furry friend and prevent aggressive behavior towards other dogs. Remember to stay patient and consistent, and if you have any concerns about your Shih Poo’s behavior, consult with a professional trainer or behaviorist.
Positive reinforcement is a highly effective training technique for Shih Poo dogs. This technique involves rewarding desired behavior with treats, affection, or other forms of positive feedback. It helps in building a strong and healthy relationship between the dog and its owner, which is crucial for minimizing aggression.
How Positive Reinforcement Works
Positive reinforcement works by reinforcing good behavior and discouraging bad behavior. This technique involves rewarding your dog every time it exhibits a positive behavior. This encourages the dog to repeat the behavior in future.
To effectively use positive reinforcement, it’s important to identify the behaviors you want to encourage and to use rewards that motivate your Shih Poo. Use an html table to list the different types of rewards that can be used during positive reinforcement training:
|Type of Reward||Description|
|Treats||Small, tasty treats that your dog loves|
|Affection||Praise, petting, hugs, or cuddles|
|Playtime||A fun game of fetch or tug-of-war with a favorite toy|
Benefits of Positive Reinforcement
Using positive reinforcement to train your Shih Poo has numerous benefits. Firstly, it strengthens the bond between the dog and its owner. Dogs that are trained with positive reinforcement are more likely to trust their owners, which reduces the likelihood of aggressive behavior.
Secondly, positive reinforcement helps to build the dog’s confidence. By rewarding good behavior, your Shih Poo will become more confident in its abilities and more willing to try new things.
Lastly, it’s an enjoyable and stress-free way of training your dog. Dogs that are trained with positive reinforcement are more likely to enjoy training sessions and look forward to them.
Effective Techniques for Positive Reinforcement
To make the most of positive reinforcement as a training technique, it’s important to use it effectively. Here are some effective techniques for positive reinforcement that you can implement during Shih Poo training:
- Start small: Begin with simple commands and gradually introduce more complex ones.
- Be consistent: Ensure that you’re rewarding good behavior every time it’s exhibited.
- Associate rewards with positive behavior: Always give rewards immediately after good behavior is exhibited.
- Avoid punishment: Never scold or punish your dog during positive reinforcement training.
- Be patient: Training takes time and patience, so be patient with your Shih Poo.
By effectively using positive reinforcement training techniques and consistently rewarding good behavior, you can minimize aggression in your Shih Poo dog and build a strong and loving relationship.
Exercise and Playtime
Keeping your Shih Poo dog physically active and mentally stimulated is crucial to minimize their aggression towards other dogs. Here are some tips to incorporate exercise and playtime into your Shih Poo’s daily routine:
1. Schedule regular playtime: Set aside some time every day to play with your furry friend. This will help them release pent-up energy and prevent them from becoming bored and restless, which can lead to aggressive behavior. Play fetch, tug-of-war, or any other game that your dog enjoys.
2. Take your dog for a walk: Walking your Shih Poo is another excellent way to keep them active and help them burn off energy. It’s also an opportunity for them to explore their surroundings and socialize with other dogs.
3. Use interactive toys: Interactive toys, such as puzzle games or treat-dispensing balls, can provide mental stimulation that is just as important as physical exercise. These toys can help to keep your dog’s brain engaged and prevent boredom.
4. Join a dog sports group: Some Shih Poo dogs enjoy participating in activities like agility, flyball, or obedience training. These activities can provide your dog with a sense of purpose and a way to channel their energy positively.
5. Consider dog daycare: If you are unable to provide your dog with enough exercise and playtime, dog daycare can be a great solution. Your dog can socialize and play in a supervised environment, which will help them expend their energy and prevent aggression towards other dogs.
By incorporating regular exercise and playtime into your Shih Poo’s routine, you can help minimize their aggression towards other dogs. Remember, every dog is different, so it’s important to find the activities that your Shih Poo enjoys the most.
Behavior modification is a key technique in preventing and minimizing aggression in Shih Poo dogs towards other dogs. Positive reinforcement is a significant tool that can be used to change and improve behavior in these dogs. The idea behind this technique is that good behavior is rewarded, and bad behavior is ignored. Over time, the dog learns that certain actions lead to positive outcomes and will repeat those actions.
One of the best ways to use behavior modification to minimize aggression in Shih Poo dogs is to use a clicker. A clicker is a small tool that makes a clicking sound when pressed. When the dog hears the clicking sound, it knows that it has done something right, and a reward is coming. You can use a clicker to teach your Shih Poo dog various commands, such as “sit,” “stay,” and “come.” By rewarding your dog with something it enjoys, such as a treat or affection, it will be more likely to repeat the desired behavior.
Another behavior modification technique that can minimize aggression in Shih Poo dogs is counter-conditioning. This technique involves changing the dog’s emotional response to a particular stimulus. For example, if your dog becomes aggressive towards other dogs, you can begin to associate the presence of other dogs with something positive, such as treats or playtime with their favorite toy. Over time, your dog will learn that other dogs are not a threat and that good things happen when they are around.
Finally, desensitization is another technique that can be used to minimize aggression in Shih Poo dogs. Desensitization involves exposing your dog to a stimulus, such as other dogs, in a controlled environment. Initially, you may start with a distance that does not trigger aggressive behavior and gradually work closer as the dog becomes more comfortable. Consistency and patience are key when practicing desensitization.
Incorporating these behavior modification techniques into your dog training routine can go a long way in preventing and minimizing aggression in Shih Poo dogs towards other dogs. By using positive reinforcement, counter-conditioning, and desensitization, you can help your dog become a more well-behaved and relaxed companion.
|Positive reinforcement||A technique where good behavior is rewarded, and bad behavior is ignored. Can use a clicker to teach commands and reward desired behavior with treats or affection.|
|Counter-conditioning||Involves changing the dog’s emotional response to a particular stimulus. Associate the presence of other dogs with something positive, such as treats or playtime with their favorite toy.|
|Desensitization||Involves exposing your dog to a stimulus, such as other dogs, in a controlled environment. Start with a distance that does not trigger aggressive behavior and gradually work closer as the dog becomes more comfortable.|
Dealing with Aggressive Behavior
As much as we hate to think about it, some Shih Poo dogs may display aggressive behavior towards other dogs. It can be a perplexing and concerning issue for pet owners who want their furry friend to get along with others. In this section of the article, we will explore various ways to deal with aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs. From recognizing the different types of aggressive behavior to redirecting it using positive training techniques, we’ll cover everything you need to know to keep your Shih Poo happy, healthy, and well-behaved.
Recognizing Different Types of Aggressive Behavior
It is essential for Shih Poo owners to be able to recognize and understand the different types of aggressive behaviors their furry friends might exhibit. Here are some distinct types of aggressive behavior that you should familiarize yourself with:
- Play Aggression: Shih Poo dogs might be friendly with their owners, but they might act aggressively when it comes to playing with other dogs. They might growl or bite, but it’s not necessarily a sign of hostility. The behavior can better be understood as them getting too excited.
- Protective Aggression: If a Shih Poo sees their owner’s behavior as threatening or if they sense any danger to any of their family members, they might become aggressive. They could display aggressive behavior such as growling or biting to protect their loved ones. It’s essential to understand this behavior that’s meant to protect their family so that you don’t punish them for it.
- Territorial Aggression: Shih Poo dogs can also be possessive of their territory, leading to territorial aggression. They might bark, growl, or lunge at anyone who comes close to their favorite spots like their beds, toys, or other belongings. It’s essential to teach them boundaries and socialize them to reduce this behavior.
- Fear Aggression: Fearful Shih Poo dogs might become aggressive if they feel threatened or cornered. They might growl or bite as a means of defense. This behavior is often a sign of their anxiety, and it’s essential to take them out of such situations and show them gradually that there is nothing to be scared of.
- Redirected Aggression: If your Shih Poo is in a situation that they cannot handle, they might become aggressive with someone else, like a person or dog, nearby, even if they have no part in an initial interaction. This behavior can be challenging to understand, and owners must be cautious when handling such situations.
Recognizing and addressing aggressive behavior before it gets out of hand is essential for your Shih Poo’s wellbeing both physically and mentally. With proper care and training, you can minimize aggressive behavior in your furry friend, leading to a happier and healthier life for both you and your pet.
Training Techniques for Redirecting Aggressive Behavior
When dealing with aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs, it is important to redirect their focus and teach them alternative behaviors. This can be achieved using various training techniques that encourage positive behavior, rather than punishing negative behavior. Here are some effective training techniques for redirecting aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs:
|Counter-conditioning||This technique involves changing the dog’s emotional response to a stimulus that triggers their aggressive behavior. For example, if a Shih Poo becomes aggressive around other dogs, the owner can gradually expose them to other dogs in a controlled and positive environment, such as a dog park or training class, while offering treats and praise.|
|Desensitization||This technique involves exposing the dog to the trigger of their aggressive behavior in a gradual and controlled manner, starting with a mild version of the trigger and increasing gradually to the real trigger. For example, if a Shih Poo is aggressive towards men wearing hats, their owner can start by having a man wear a hat from a distance while offering treats and praise, and gradually move closer until the man can approach the dog without triggering aggression.|
|Positive reinforcement||This technique involves rewarding the dog for displaying non-aggressive behavior. For example, if a Shih Poo is prone to aggressive behavior when they see other dogs, their owner can give them a treat or praise when they display non-aggressive behavior around other dogs, such as sitting calmly or sniffing without barking or growling.|
|Clicker training||This technique involves using a clicker to mark a desired behavior, followed by a reward such as a treat or praise. For example, if a Shih Poo becomes aggressive when they hear loud noises, the owner can use a clicker to mark and reward them for remaining calm during a loud noise, gradually increasing the volume of the noise over time.|
These training techniques take time, patience, and consistency to be effective. It’s important to remember that Shih Poo dogs respond best to positive reinforcement, rather than punishment or harsh discipline. By redirecting their focus and teaching them alternative behaviors, Shih Poo dogs can learn to overcome their aggressive tendencies and live a happy, healthy life.
Dealing with Fear Aggression and Anxiety
Dealing with fear aggression and anxiety in Shih Poo dogs is crucial for preventing aggressive behavior towards other dogs. If your Shih Poo is showing signs of fear and anxiety, there are steps you can take to help them feel more comfortable and confident.
Recognizing Fear Aggression and Anxiety: Fear aggression and anxiety in dogs can manifest in a number of ways, including growling, barking, backing away, or even biting. Your Shih Poo may display these behaviors in response to specific triggers, such as other dogs, loud noises or unfamiliar environments. It’s important to recognize these signs and address them promptly before they escalate into more aggressive behavior.
Step 1: Addressing the Source of Fear: If your Shih Poo is displaying fear aggression or anxiety towards other dogs, it’s essential to identify the root cause. Perhaps your dog had a negative experience with another dog in the past, or maybe they were not adequately socialized as a puppy. Identifying the source of fear and dealing with it in a positive manner can help your dog overcome their anxiety and reduce their aggressive behavior towards other dogs.
Step 2: Gradual Exposure and Positive Reinforcement: Once you’ve identified the trigger of your Shih Poo’s fear aggression or anxiety, you can begin to desensitize them by gradually exposing them to the source of their fear in a controlled environment. Start by exposing your dog to the trigger from a safe distance and slowly decrease the distance over time. Positive reinforcement techniques such as treats and praise can be very effective in motivating your dog to stay calm and relaxed.
Step 3: Professional Help: In cases where the fear aggression or anxiety is severe, or you’re not able to address the issue on your own, it may be necessary to seek help from a professional dog trainer or behaviorist. They can help you develop a customized training plan that addresses your Shih Poo’s specific needs.
The key to dealing with fear aggression and anxiety in Shih Poo dogs is to be patient, consistent and positive in your approach. With proper training techniques and reinforcement, you can help your furry friend overcome their fears and reduce the likelihood of aggressive behavior towards other dogs.
When to Seek Professional Help
When dealing with Shih Poo aggression, it’s important to know when to seek professional help. Professional help can be sought when the dog’s aggressive behavior is persistent, severe, and/or unpredictable. It’s important to take action before the aggression gets worse and someone gets hurt.
It’s recommended to seek professional help if the dog shows any of the following signs:
|Signs to Look Out For||Description|
|Excessive growling, barking or snarling||If your Shih Poo is growling, barking or snarling excessively, especially when unprovoked, it’s a sign that professional help may be necessary.|
|Hostility towards other animals or humans||If your Shih Poo exhibits hostility towards other animals or humans, including family members, visitors or strangers, it’s important to seek professional help as soon as possible.|
|Aggressiveness triggered by specific events||If your Shih Poo is triggered by specific events or situations such as loud noises, car rides, or when new people are around, professional help is recommended to help identify the cause and work on a solution.|
|Biting or nipping at people or other animals||If your Shih Poo has bitten or nipped at anyone or any other animal, it’s important to seek professional help immediately as this can lead to serious injuries.|
It’s essential to seek professional help from a certified dog trainer or animal behaviorist who has experience in working with aggressive dogs. They will help identify the underlying cause of the aggression and work on a personalized training plan to modify the dog’s behavior.
Remember, living with an aggressive Shih Poo can be stressful and dangerous. Seek professional help before it’s too late.
After learning about the different techniques to minimize aggression in Shih Poo dogs towards other dogs, it is important to remember that each dog is unique and may require different methods of training. However, there are a few key takeaways that can be incorporated into any Shih Poo dog’s training regimen.
Early socialization is crucial in helping dogs develop positive interactions and relationships with other dogs. Introducing your Shih Poo to other dogs and people as early as possible can help them feel comfortable and reduce anxiety around new dogs in the future.
Obedience training lays a foundation for your Shih Poo to understand basic commands, and more importantly, it helps develop an owner-dog bond. Using positive reinforcement techniques, such as treats and praise, can help build trust and positive behavior.
Behavior modification techniques are crucial in addressing any aggressive tendencies that your Shih Poo may develop. By understanding the specific type of aggression and redirecting the behavior through training and positive reinforcement, owners can help their dogs develop new, positive behaviors.
Exercise and playtime are important in reducing anxiety and pent-up energy that can lead to aggressive behavior. Ensuring that your Shih Poo gets enough exercise and playtime can improve their overall well-being and decrease the likelihood of aggressive behavior towards other dogs.
Finally, it is important to remember that if you notice anything concerning in your Shih Poo’s behavior, seeking professional help from a licensed veterinarian or animal behaviorist is always a good idea. Addressing any aggression early on can prevent more serious issues from developing in the future.
In conclusion, with the right training techniques and positive reinforcement, owners can minimize aggression in Shih Poo dogs towards other dogs. By addressing specific behavior and developing a strong bond between owner and pet, owners can help their furry friends live happy, healthy lives free from aggressive tendencies.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. Can Shih Poo dogs be aggressive towards other dogs?
Yes, Shih Poo dogs can display aggressive behavior towards other dogs.
2. What are some common reasons for Shih Poo aggression towards other dogs?
Some common reasons for Shih Poo aggression towards other dogs include lack of socialization, past negative experiences, fear or anxiety, and territorial instincts.
3. Is early socialization effective in preventing aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs?
Yes, early socialization can be effective in preventing aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs as it helps to expose them to different experiences and situations, and teaches them how to interact appropriately with other dogs.
4. What is positive reinforcement training and how does it help minimize aggression in Shih Poo dogs?
Positive reinforcement training is a technique that involves rewarding good behavior with treats, praise, or toys to reinforce positive behavior. This technique can encourage Shih Poo dogs to be less aggressive towards other dogs as they learn to associate good behavior with rewards.
5. How important is exercise and playtime in preventing Shih Poo aggression towards other dogs?
Regular exercise and playtime can help to minimize aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs by providing them with an outlet for excess energy and reducing their stress levels.
6. Can behavior modification techniques be effective in minimizing aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs?
Yes, behavior modification techniques can be effective in minimizing aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs. Such techniques involve identifying the root cause of the aggression and modifying the dog’s behavior through positive reinforcement, counterconditioning, or desensitization.
7. What are some signs of fear aggression and anxiety in Shih Poo dogs?
Signs of fear aggression and anxiety in Shih Poo dogs include excessive barking, growling, trembling, and biting.
8. When should I seek professional help for my Shih Poo’s aggressive behavior?
If your Shih Poo displays persistent aggressive behavior, it is advisable to seek professional help from a certified dog trainer or behaviorist. This is especially important if the aggression is impacting your dog’s quality of life and your own safety.
9. Can medication be effective in minimizing aggressive behavior in Shih Poo dogs?
Yes, medication can be effective in minimizing aggressive behavior in some Shih Poo dogs. However, it is important to consult with a veterinarian and behaviorist to determine the most appropriate medication and dosage for your dog’s individual needs.
10. Is it possible to completely eliminate aggression in Shih Poo dogs?
While it may not be possible to completely eliminate aggression in all Shih Poo dogs, with proper training, socialization, and management techniques, their aggressive behavior can be significantly minimized to help them lead happy and healthy lives.