Common Genetic Disorders in Lhasa Apso

As a Lhasa Apso owner, you may feel overwhelmed by the prospect of your furry friend developing a genetic disorder. With so much information out there, it can be hard to know where to start. But don’t worry, we’re here to help. In this article, we’ll provide a comprehensive guide to identifying and preventing common genetic disorders in Lhasa Apsos. From an overview of genetics and inheritance to best practices for breeders, we’ve got you covered. Read on to learn how to keep your Lhasa Apso healthy and happy.

What are Genetic Disorders?

What Are Genetic Disorders?
When it comes to our beloved Lhasa Apso companions, we want nothing but the best for them. As responsible pet owners, it’s important to understand the various health risks and conditions that may arise in dogs, especially those that are genetically predisposed. In this section, we’ll delve deeper into genetic disorders – what they are, how they occur, and why Lhasa Apsos are more susceptible to certain conditions. Understanding the basics of genetics and inheritance will help us better identify, prevent, and manage genetic disorders that may impact our furry friends. If you would like to refresh your knowledge of Lhasa Apso genetics, check out Lhasa Apso Genetics 101 or learn about the science behind Lhasa Apso breeding by visiting Science Behind Lhasa Apso Breeding. For breeders, you might be interested in reading Lhasa Apso Breeding Tips or discover more about genetic testing by clicking here.

Overview of Genetics and Inheritance

Genetics and inheritance play a crucial role in the development of most diseases, including those in Lhasa Apsos. Here is an overview of the basic concepts of genetics and inheritance that every Lhasa Apso owner should understand:

  • Genes: Genes are the basic unit of heredity that determine an individual’s traits. Each gene is made of DNA and codes for a specific protein.
  • Chromosome: Chromosomes are large structures that contain genes. In dogs, there are 38 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome from each pair is inherited from the mother, and the other from the father.
  • Allele: An allele is one of the forms that a gene can take. For example, there are two alleles that determine the color of a Lhasa Apso’s coat: black and white. A dog can inherit two copies of the same allele (homozygous) or two different alleles (heterozygous).
  • Dominant and recessive: Some alleles are dominant, meaning that they mask the effects of other alleles. Recessive alleles are only expressed when the dog has two copies of the same gene. For example, the gene for black coat color is dominant to the gene for white coat color.

Understanding these concepts is important because genetic disorders in Lhasa Apsos are caused by mutations in specific genes. Depending on the mode of inheritance, a dog may inherit disease-causing alleles from one or both parents. In the next section, we will discuss some of the specific genetic disorders that are common in Lhasa Apsos.

Lhasa Apso Predispositions

Lhasa Apsos are known to be predisposed to certain genetic disorders that not only affect their health but also impact their quality of life. These predispositions are identified through studies conducted on different breeds of dogs and have been found to be common amongst Lhasa Apsos. Below is a table that highlights some of the most significant predispositions that Lhasa Apsos face:

Genetic DisorderDescription
Progressive Retinal AtrophyA genetic disorder that affects the retina of the eye and can lead to partial or complete blindness over time.
Patellar LuxationA condition where the kneecap dislocates from its regular position and can cause pain, lameness, and difficulty in mobility.
Canine Hip DysplasiaA genetic disorder where the hip socket does not form correctly, leading to pain and difficulty in movement.
Intervertebral Disc DiseaseA disorder where the discs located in between the spinal vertebrae rupture and protrude, leading to nerve damage and paralysis.
Renal DysplasiaA genetic disorder where the kidneys do not develop properly, leading to kidney failure and subsequent health complications.
Other ConditionsLhasa Apsos are also predisposed to skin allergies, eye infections, and dental problems, which can be managed with proper care and regular checkups.

It is important to note that not all Lhasa Apsos will develop these conditions, and some may develop different health conditions not listed. Hence, it is crucial to watch out for symptoms and seek professional assistance for potential health issues as early as possible. By taking preventive measures and seeking professional assistance, you can provide your Lhasa Apso with a healthy and fulfilling life.

Common Genetic Disorders in Lhasa Apso Dogs

Common Genetic Disorders In Lhasa Apso Dogs
As much as we love our furry friends, it’s important to acknowledge that they are prone to various health issues. Lhasa Apsos are no exception, and unfortunately, they are susceptible to a number of genetic disorders that can impact their overall wellbeing. As responsible pet owners or breeders, it’s crucial that we’re aware of these conditions and take the necessary steps to ensure our pups are healthy and happy. In this section, we’ll be discussing some of the most common genetic disorders that affect Lhasa Apsos and what can be done to prevent or manage them.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy

One of the most common genetic disorders observed in Lhasa Apsos is Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA). This disorder is characterized by the gradual deterioration of the retina, which leads to progressive blindness in dogs.

PRA is a disease that can be inherited from both parents, and its onset usually occurs between the ages of 3 to 5 years. Though it can occur in any breed, some breeds including the Lhasa Apso are more predisposed to it.

The following table provides an overview of the key aspects of PRA in Lhasa Apsos:

CausesGenetic mutations in the dog’s DNA that result in the degeneration of the retina
SymptomsProgressive vision loss, night blindness, dilated pupils, and ultimately complete blindness
TreatmentThere is no cure for PRA, but a combination of diet, vitamin supplementation, and supportive care can slow the disease’s progression and reduce symptoms.
PreventionBreeders can prevent PRA by screening dogs for the genetic mutation that causes the disorder and using only those dogs free from PRA mutations for breeding.

The most effective way to prevent PRA in Lhasas is by regular genetic testing of breeding dogs. Genetic tests can identify carrier dogs, which can help breeders make informed decisions about which dogs to breed. If both dogs carry the defective gene, their offspring stand a high risk of developing the disease.

If your dog shows any symptoms of PRA, you should immediately consult your veterinary specialist. While there is currently no cure for PRA, long-term care can help preserve vision and independence while reducing the spread of the disease to future generations.

Patellar Luxation

Patellar luxation is a common condition in Lhasa Apsos. This is a condition where the knee cap or patella dislocates from its normal position. It can be caused by genetic factors or trauma. Patellar luxation usually affects dogs in their first year of life, but it can also develop later in life due to injury or degenerative joint disease.

Some signs of patellar luxation in Lhasa Apsos include hopping or skipping when walking or running, lameness, difficulty jumping, and a tendency to hold up one of their back legs. The severity of patellar luxation varies from mild to severe, and treatment options depend on the severity of the condition.

Here are some important things to know about patellar luxation:

  • It is a heritable condition, which means it can be passed down through generations of dogs
  • It is more common in smaller dog breeds, including Lhasa Apsos
  • Patellar luxation can lead to degenerative joint disease
  • Treatment options may include weight management, physical therapy, medication, or surgery

If you suspect that your Lhasa Apso has patellar luxation, it is important to have them examined by a veterinarian. Treatment options may vary depending on the severity of the condition, so early diagnosis is crucial. Genetic testing can also be done to determine if your dog has a predisposition to patellar luxation.

To prevent patellar luxation in Lhasa Apsos, it is important to choose a reputable breeder who screens their dogs for this condition. Additionally, maintaining a healthy weight and providing appropriate exercise and nutrition can help prevent the development or progression of patellar luxation. Regular check-ups with your veterinarian can also help detect any potential health issues before they become more serious.

Canine Hip Dysplasia

Canine Hip Dysplasia is a genetic disorder found in Lhasa Apsos, as well as other dog breeds. It is a condition that affects the hip joint and occurs when the hip socket is too shallow or misshapen. This can cause the ball of the femur bone to loosen and eventually lead to arthritis, pain, and mobility issues in the affected dog.

Symptoms of Canine Hip Dysplasia

Some of the most common signs of Canine Hip Dysplasia include:

Signs and SymptomsExplanation
Lameness, stiffness, or difficulty walkingThis may be more noticeable after exercise or long periods of rest.
Pain or discomfort when touched on or near the hip jointThe dog may flinch or cry out when pressure is applied to the affected area.
Limited range of motion in the hind legsDifficulty performing certain movements or activities, such as jumping or climbing stairs.
Licking or chewing on the hip or thigh areaMay indicate discomfort or irritation in the hip joint.

Treatment and Management of Canine Hip Dysplasia

While there is no cure for Canine Hip Dysplasia, there are several ways to manage the symptoms and improve the dog’s quality of life. The treatment plan may depend on the severity of the condition and can include:

  • Weight management: Maintaining a healthy weight can help reduce the stress on the hip joint and slow down the progression of the disease.
  • Exercise: Low-impact activities, such as walking or swimming, can help strengthen the muscles around the hip joint and improve mobility.
  • Medications: Anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to alleviate pain and inflammation in the affected joint.
  • Surgery: In severe cases, surgery may be recommended to correct the hip joint or replace it with an artificial implant.

Preventing Canine Hip Dysplasia

Prevention is key when it comes to Canine Hip Dysplasia. As with other genetic disorders, it is important to adopt from reputable breeders who conduct proper health screenings on their breeding dogs. Maintaining a healthy diet and providing regular exercise can help prevent obesity, which is a risk factor for the condition. By taking these precautions, Lhasa Apso owners can help ensure their furry friends live healthy, pain-free lives.

Intervertebral Disc Disease

Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is a common genetic disorder among Lhasa Apsos, affecting the spine’s connecting discs.

Risk Factors: IVDD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as age, obesity, and physical activity.

Symptoms: Some common symptoms include difficulty standing or walking, pain, and muscle spasms. In severe cases, IVDD can lead to paralysis.

Treatment: Treatment options for IVDD vary depending on the severity of the condition. Mild cases may be treated with rest and pain medication, while more severe cases may require surgery.

Prevention: Preventing IVDD in Lhasa Apsos involves maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding activities that put pressure on the spine, such as jumping or twisting.

In order to prevent the disease, Lhasa Apso owners should take a proactive approach. For example, feeding a high-quality diet and ensuring they get enough exercise can help maintain a healthy weight. Also, minimizing activities that can damage the spine, such as jumping or twisting, can reduce the risk of IVDD.

Breeders can take steps to reduce the likelihood of IVDD in their breeding lines by screening and testing potential breeding pairs for the genetic mutations that lead to the disease. By adopting such measures, they can ensure the future puppies have a lower risk of developing IVDD.

It’s important to be vigilant when it comes to the health of Lhasa Apsos and be aware of the genetic disorders they may be predisposed to. Identifying these disorders early and taking steps to prevent them can not only improve the dog’s quality of life, but also help increase their lifespan.

Renal Dysplasia

Renal Dysplasia is another genetic disorder that Lhasa Apsos can inherit. It is a developmental anomaly of the kidneys that can lead to chronic renal failure. This condition occurs when the kidney tissue does not develop normally, leading to cysts forming in the organ, a loss of function or even non-functional kidneys.

Signs and Symptoms
– Excessive thirst and urination
– Fatigue or lethargy
– Loss of appetite
– Vomiting or diarrhea
– Weight loss

Diagnosis and Treatment
If you observe any of these symptoms, it is important to take your dog to the veterinarian for a complete examination. Diagnosis of Renal Dysplasia may include blood tests, urine tests, and imaging tests such as a CT scan or ultrasound. If your Lhasa Apso is affected by Renal Dysplasia, the veterinarian may recommend dietary changes and medications that can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In advanced cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.

While Renal Dysplasia is a genetic disorder that can be passed down from parent to offspring, certain preventative measures can reduce the likelihood of it appearing in Lhasa Apsos. Proper breeding practices and genetic testing are crucial to identifying and reducing the number of dogs with Renal Dysplasia that are used for breeding. Additionally, providing your Lhasa Apso with a healthy diet, keeping them well hydrated, and having them screened regularly by a veterinarian can also help prevent Renal Dysplasia from developing or progressing.

Other Conditions

Lhasa Apsos can be susceptible to a range of other genetic conditions, some of which are less common yet still serious. These conditions can often be difficult to identify, as they may not have obvious symptoms early on. Here are some other genetic conditions that Lhasa Apsos may be at risk for:

Canine Multifocal RetinopathyA condition in which small, round, and elevated lesions occur in the retina, which can cause vision problems and even blindness over time.
Sebaceous AdenitisA condition that causes inflammation and degeneration of the sebaceous glands in the skin, leading to hair loss and scaly skin.
Gastrointestinal IssuesLhasa Apsos are prone to several gastrointestinal issues, including inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, and liver shunts.
Heart ConditionsLhasa Apsos can be at risk for heart conditions such as mitral valve disease and dilated cardiomyopathy, which may lead to heart failure if left untreated.

If you notice any changes in your Lhasa Apso’s behavior or physical health, it’s important to have them examined by a veterinarian. Early detection and treatment can make a significant difference in managing and treating these conditions. Additionally, it’s important to work with a breeder who takes genetic testing and screening seriously when selecting dogs for breeding.

Identifying Genetic Disorders in Lhasa Apsos

Identifying Genetic Disorders In Lhasa Apsos
Knowing if your Lhasa Apso is predisposed to a certain genetic disorder can help with early detection and intervention. However, identifying genetic disorders in dogs can be challenging, especially if symptoms are not immediately obvious. Fortunately, there are different methods available for screening and testing dogs for genetic disorders. In this section, we will discuss some of the best ways to identify genetic disorders in Lhasa Apsos.

Early Detection and Diagnosis

As a pet owner or breeder, early detection and diagnosis of genetic disorders in Lhasa Apsos is crucial. By identifying the disorder early, it is possible to take corrective or preventive measures to manage the condition effectively. Keep an eye out for the following symptoms that may indicate a genetic disorder:

SymptomsPossible Disorder
Eye redness or tearingProgressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
Limping or Favoring a LegPatellar Luxation
Lameness or Difficulty WalkingCanine Hip Dysplasia (CHD)
Difficulty breathing or standing uprightIntervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD)
Incontinence, Fatigue or Unusual Weight LossRenal Dysplasia
Unexplained Skin Lesions, Allergies or Hair LossOther genetic conditions

It’s essential to observe your dog’s behavior regularly and note any changes or abnormalities. Additionally, you should consult a veterinarian who can identify potential genetic disorders and test for them. Early diagnosis can enable your pet to receive proper treatment to manage or correct any issues.

It’s important to note that while early detection and diagnosis can help manage many genetic conditions, some disorders may have severe or irreversible consequences. In these cases, managing the condition may involve palliative care, making sure your pet is comfortable, and keeping them healthy for as long as possible.

Genetic Testing and Screening

Identifying potential genetic disorders in Lhasa Apsos can a essential step in ensuring their overall health and well-being. One of the most effective ways to identify genetic predispositions is through genetic testing and screening. Here are a few key points to keep in mind when considering genetic testing for your Lhasa Apso:

  • Testing Options: There are a variety of genetic tests available for dogs, so it’s important to choose the most relevant ones for your Lhasa Apso. Some of the most popular tests for genetic disorders in Lhasa Apso dogs include tests for Progressive Retinal Atrophy, Patellar Luxation, and Canine Hip Dysplasia, among others.
  • Testing Process: The testing process may vary depending on the specific test being performed. In most cases, DNA samples can be collected easily through a simple cheek swab or blood test. Once collected, the samples are sent to a specialized laboratory for analysis.
  • Interpreting Test Results: Your Lhasa Apso’s test results can provide valuable insights into whether they are at risk for various genetic disorders. If the tests reveal that your dog may be predisposed to a particular condition, your veterinarian can help you develop a plan to manage or prevent it.
  • Breed-Specific Testing: Many breeders and owners of Lhasa Apsos opt for breed-specific genetic testing, which can reveal specific health risks for the breed. These tests can also be helpful for breeders who wish to select their breeding pairs carefully to avoid passing on harmful genes.

It’s important to note that genetic testing alone cannot prevent genetic disorders, but it can help identify those at risk at a young age, which is key to managing the condition. Testing coupled with the right lifestyle and medical management can significantly improve the lifespan and quality of life of your Lhasa Apso.

Preventing Genetic Disorders in Lhasa Apsos

As we’ve seen, Lhasa Apsos can be susceptible to a variety of genetic disorders. While identifying and treating these conditions is crucial, prevention is always the best course of action. Fortunately, there are steps that breeders and pet owners can take to minimize the risk of genetic disorders. In this section, we’ll explore practical strategies for promoting the health of Lhasa Apsos and reducing the incidence of genetic disorders. From responsible breeding practices to training and diet considerations, there are many ways to help your furry friend stay healthy and happy. Let’s dive in!

Best Practices for Breeders

Breeding Lhasa Apsos responsibly requires understanding and implementing best practices that prioritize the health and well-being of the dogs. Some of the best practices for breeders include:

Maintaining Comprehensive Health RecordsKeeping detailed health records for Lhasa Apsos and their offspring is essential for monitoring potential health issues.
Performing Genetic TestingGenetic testing can help identify carriers of certain genetic disorders, enabling breeders to avoid breeding dogs that may pass on those conditions to their offspring.
Breeding for DiversityOverbreeding can result in a narrow gene pool and increase the likelihood of genetic disorders. Breeders should consider introducing unrelated dogs to the breeding program to maintain a diverse gene pool.
Avoiding InbreedingInbreeding can amplify the risk of genetic disorders that are prevalent in the breed. Breeding Lhasa Apsos that are not closely related is essential to minimize the risk of inherited disorders.
Screening Potential Breeding DogsDogs that show signs of genetic disorders should not be used for breeding. Thus, breeders should screen potential breeding dogs for inherited conditions to prevent transmitting genetic diseases to their offspring.
Providing Prenatal and Postnatal CareBreeders should ensure that their dogs receive proper care to reduce the risks of prenatal and postnatal complications. Neglecting appropriate care can result in harmful and costly effects on the dog’s health.

Breeding Lhasa Apsos involves a substantial commitment of time, money, and effort. Thus, responsible breeding practices aim to produce healthy and happy dogs while minimizing the risks of genetic disorders. By following these best practices, breeders can help to maintain the Lhasa Apso breed’s health and longevity, while preserving its unique characteristics.

Adopting From Reputable Sources

When considering adopting a Lhasa Apso, it is important to source your pet from a reputable and responsible breeder or rescue center. This ensures that you are getting a healthy pup who has been screened for genetic disorders. Here are some tips to help ensure a successful adoption process:

  • Research: Do your research on breeders and rescue centers. Look for reviews and ratings from past customers, and consider reaching out to references provided by the breeder or rescue center.
  • Visit: Arrange a visit to the breeder or rescue center to inspect the facilities and meet the dogs. This will allow you to observe the dogs’ behavior and socialization, as well as the breeder’s or center’s knowledge of the breed and care of the animals.
  • Screening: Inquire with the breeder or rescue center about their screening process for genetic disorders. Look for documentation of genetic testing and their health guarantee policies.
  • Interview: Prepare a list of questions to ask the breeder or rescue center. Ask about their experience with the breed, their breeding practices, and their policies on spaying and neutering.
  • Contracts: Ask the breeder or rescue center for a written contract that outlines the terms of adoption, such as a health guarantee, return policy, and spay/neuter agreement.

By adopting from reputable sources, you can help prevent supporting irresponsible breeding practices and contribute to the betterment of the breed. Remember, a healthy and happy pup starts with responsible ownership.

Training and Diet Considerations

Ensuring a healthy diet and proper training regimen for your Lhasa Apso can play a significant role in minimizing the risk of genetic disorders. Providing high-quality and nutritious food can boost their immune system and overall body function.

Diet Considerations

Lhasa Apsos are small breed dogs that require a balanced and nutritious diet to maintain their health. Their diet should consist of high-quality proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Here are some important diet considerations for Lhasa Apso:

Diet ConsiderationsExplanation
ProteinLhasa Apsos require high-quality protein sources like chicken, beef or lamb as it helps support their muscle growth and repair.
FatsThey need fats to provide energy, support proper growth and development, and to maintain healthy skin and coat. Some sources of fats include fish oil or flaxseed oil.
CarbohydratesWhole grains like brown rice or quinoa can provide essential nutrients and fiber for digestion.
Vitamins and MineralsVitamins and minerals play a vital role in maintaining a healthy immune system. Lhasa Apsos require essential vitamins and minerals which can enhance their overall health.

It’s vital to avoid feeding them table scraps or human food since certain human foods can be toxic for dogs. Make sure to consult a veterinarian for a specific dietary plan tailored to your Lhasa Apso’s needs.

Training Considerations

Training your Lhasa Apso can help ensure they maintain good behavior, health, and a strong bond with their owner. Regular exercise can prevent obesity and other related health problems, and it’s important to maintain an appropriate level of physical fitness for your dog.

Here are some considerations to keep in mind while training your Lhasa Apso:

Training ConsiderationsExplanation
Consistency in TrainingHave a consistent, concise, and clear training regimen to help your dog understand what is expected of them.
Positive ReinforcementUse positive reinforcement techniques like treats or praise to encourage good behavior.
Train on Basic CommandsTraining them basic commands like sit, stay, and come can ensure their safety during walks, at home, or in public places.
SocializationExpose your Lhasa Apso to new people, animals, and environments from an early age to ensure they have good social skills and avoid anxiety or aggression.

Maintaining a healthy diet and proper training program can help prevent potential genetic disorders in your Lhasa Apso. Consider the diet and training considerations detailed above while managing your dog’s health and well-being.


After going through the detailed guide on identifying and preventing common genetic disorders in Lhasa Apsos, it is clear that these issues can be heartbreaking for pet owners. However, with the right resources and actions, it is possible to prevent and manage potentially debilitating conditions in Lhasa Apsos.

It all starts with education: As a pet owner or breeder, educating yourself on genetics, inheritance patterns, and predispositions can go a long way in identifying potential issues early on. You can then take measures such as genetic testing, regular check-ups, and proper rehabilitation and care to prevent or manage these conditions.

Working with reputable breeders: If you are looking to buy or adopt a Lhasa Apso, it’s vital that you work only with reputable breeders who prioritize the health and welfare of their dogs. This includes extensive health testing of their breeding stock, providing health certificates for each puppy, and offering support post-adoption.

Proactive care: Finally, being proactive in your Lhasa Apso’s care is crucial. Regular vet visits, proper diet and exercise, and preventive measures like vaccinations can help keep your dog healthy and disease-free for years to come.

In conclusion, genetic disorders are a reality for many dog breeds, including Lhasa Apsos. However, by taking a proactive and informed approach, we can identify and prevent many of the most common conditions, ensuring that our beloved pets live long, healthy lives.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is a genetic disorder?

A genetic disorder is a condition that is caused by an abnormality in an individual’s DNA.

2. How are genetic disorders inherited?

Genetic disorders can be inherited in several ways, including autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance, X-linked inheritance, and mitochondrial inheritance.

3. Are Lhasa Apsos more prone to certain genetic disorders than other breeds?

Yes, Lhasa Apsos are more prone to certain genetic disorders, including Progressive Retinal Atrophy, Patellar Luxation, and Canine Hip Dysplasia, among others.

4. How can I detect if my Lhasa Apso has a genetic disorder?

Early detection and diagnosis of genetic disorders in Lhasa Apsos is important. Signs that your dog may be suffering from a genetic disorder include limping, difficulty standing or walking, excessive scratching, and vision loss.

5. Can genetic disorders in Lhasa Apsos be prevented?

While genetic disorders cannot be completely prevented, there are steps that breeders and owners can take to reduce the likelihood of these disorders occurring.

6. What is the best way to diagnose a genetic disorder in my Lhasa Apso?

A veterinarian can diagnose a genetic disorder in your Lhasa Apso through a variety of tests, including a physical examination, blood tests, and genetic testing.

7. Can I still breed my Lhasa Apso if it has a genetic disorder?

In general, it is not recommended to breed Lhasa Apsos with genetic disorders, as this can perpetuate the occurrence of these disorders in future generations.

8. Can genetic disorders be treated in Lhasa Apsos?

While there is no cure for genetic disorders, treatments such as medication, surgery, and physical therapy may help to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

9. What is the importance of genetic testing and screening for Lhasa Apsos?

Genetic testing and screening can help identify which dogs are carriers of certain genetic disorders, allowing breeders to make informed decisions about which dogs to breed.

10. Are there any specific training or diet considerations for Lhasa Apsos with genetic disorders?

Training and diet can play a role in managing symptoms and improving overall health in Lhasa Apsos with genetic disorders. Consult with a veterinarian for recommendations specific to your dog’s condition.


Britta Thygesen

Britta Thygesen

A passionate dog owner and a full-time certified dog trainer. Aspires to make DogCareHacks a go-to place for all the doggo info. Shares personal experience and professional knowledge.

We will be happy to hear your thoughts

      Leave a reply

      Dog Care Hacks